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City of Rochester

Wildlife

   Groundhog peeking from denAnimal Control Officers respond to calls within city limits regarding injured wildlife or wildlife causing an immediate public safety hazard. Living in harmony with wildlife in our community often poses some challenging situations to citizens. We have included useful information you may need from the professionals regarding humane alternatives to dealing with nuisance wildlife. Keeping garbage can lids secure, garage doors closed, and possibly suspending your bird feeding activities for a while may be necessary (never do this in late fall or winter).

When wild animals have set up housekeeping in your attic, obtain a live trap from a supply rental company or garden center. Once a wild animals is trapped, call 311 to request removal by an Animal Control Officer. Do not attempt to relocate a wild animal yourself as such transportation and release is regulated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and requires a license. Wildlife that have actually entered and are currently accessible in the living space of your home can be removed by an Animal Control Officer. Live traps are not recommended for nuisance wildlife living outside, as exclusion tactics are the best method of dealing with these animals rather than relocation.

Raccoon stealing cat foodFor injured wildlife, call 311 and an Animal Control Officer will respond and transport the animal to a veterinarian or licensed wildlife rehabilitator for treatment or humane euthanasia. Do not put yourself at risk for a wild animal bite. If there is concern regarding a bite, call us to pick up the injured animal.

Wildlife issues that you have not been able to successfully eliminate by excluding them from your home may require the service of a private company that offers these types of service.

Living with Local Wildlife
A common misconception is that setting a live trap, catching the woodchuck, raccoon, skunk or opossum and destroying it or relocating it will take care of the nuisance. However, before too long another woodchuck, raccoon, skunk or opossum will move into the area. If it was a good habitat for one, it's just as good for another. Urban wildlife enjoy the easy life we often unknowingly provide for them; they don't like a hostile environment. Taking steps to deter them will encourage them to move on. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is a wealth of information on living and dealing with our wild neighbors.

Canada Geese - Download the HSUS Guide on Humanely Resolving Conflict with Canada Geese

WoodchucksiStock_groundhog

Woodchucks, also referred to as groundhogs, are herbivores and primarily eat grasses and forbs such as clover and dandelion. They are traditionally associated with agricultural areas where open fields and croplands provide food and where woodlots and hedgerows provide cover. It has become common for woodchucks to colonize suburban and urban habitats where open fields and lawns can be found in conjunction with areas of cover. Woodchucks often establish their burrows within the grassy strips along roads and highways and may graze right up to the road's edge. 

Woodchucks hibernate so they are not generally seen between early November and late February. Garden or plant damage caused during those months is more likely caused by deer or rabbits. Although woodchucks will occasionally damage perennial beds or vegetable gardens, they can coexist with people and tolerance and education are always our first recommendations. It is never appropriate to categorize entire species as worthy of destruction simply because they may occasionally cause problems. When conflicts arise, it is the individual animal, individual person, and the specific problem that should be addressed.

One approach to eliminating unwanted woodchucks is through habitat modification. Adding a novel stimuli to your lawn such as a beach ball left to move with the wind or scarecrows may temporarily deter them from your property. Also, a simple change in your activity and use of the area may disturb and unsettle them thereby discouraging their return. So try making a few extra trips to pull weeds in the garden, toss or pass the ball with the kids, or play fetch with the dog. Another solution may be to remove vegetation from around burrows to eliminate the cover. Such action, coupled with other simultaneous remedies, may add to the woodchuck's insecurity making your property less desirable than other options. 

Exclusion is recommended when woodchucks have burrowed under houses, garages, and sheds, or when burrows are located close to gardens meaning that depredations are likely. Woodchucks can be driven from burrows by harassment or by altering conditions to disturb them, or by using one-way doors allowing exit but not re-entry. You can place hay in the burrow entrance to determine if the burrow is vacant. After three to five days without activity at the burrow, it can be assumed to be unoccupied and can be closed with heavy gauge welded wire available at hardware stores and garden centers. Excavate the area around the burrow entrance. Then cut the wire in about 3-square-foot sections and bury it at least 1 foot deep. 

If the burrow is occupied, you may be able to repel the woodchuck by digging out the entrance, clearing vegetation away from entrances, using ammonia-soaked rags placed just inside the entrance, or any other form of accepted harassment that would displace the wood chuck and other nontarget species that might be using the burrow system. Make sure to handle all of the multiple entrances in the same manner. Removing undergrowth and grass cover by mowing may be effective around buildings and homes. If you want to try fencing an area, be sure to bury the fence about 1 foot underground to prevent tunneling under it and 3 to 4 feet high to deter climbing over.

RaccoonsiStock_raccoon

Raccoons rarely exhibit a fear of people or civilization, since they are born and raised in our neighborhoods. They have replaced their more natural nesting places with attics, crawlspaces, hot tubs, decks, tool sheds and storm drains. Pet water bowls, swimming pools and ponds have replaced water sources such as creeks and springs. Raccoons are nocturnal animals that roam their neighborhoods each night looking for food. They are opportunistic feeders, dining on insects, fruits, vegetables, acorns, seeds, fish and small mammals, as well as dog and cat food, and garbage that is left out overnight. 

The only long-term, permanent means of coping with troublesome raccoons are to exclude them from areas where they are not wanted. If they cannot get a meal at one place, they will look elsewhere, and they will remember where they can and cannot expect to have their hunger satisfied.

Motion-sensitive lighting kits and motion-sensitive oscillating sprinklers can also effectively deter nocturnal raids on trashcans or gardens.

Repellents: Ropel® Animal and Rodent Repellant contains both a bittering agent and a penetrating agent to allow it to better absorb into plant tissue or other material. It works by imparting an extremely bitter taste to anything it contacts. Get-Away® Squirrel and Raccoon Repellant uses extracts of oil of mustard and capsaicin as both an odor and taste repellent.

Raccoon ScavengingRegular household ammonia stations can be placed around your yard in the areas frequented by raccoons. Take a shallow dish or bowl, place a rag in it and pour ammonia over the rag until completely saturated. Place enough ammonia in the dish so the rag will continue to wick the ammonia up through the night. Avoid lawn areas, as ammonia will burn grass.

Use a metal trashcan and secure the top with a thick rubber strap with hooks on the end, available at most hardware stores. You can also secure the can to a fence. Place piles of cayenne pepper or a repellent where raccoons are digging in your recently sodded lawn for worms and grubs may discourage them. 

Situations with raccoons in chimneys and attics involve raccoon families; a flue makes a cozy den for giving birth. When a mother raccoon with young is present, we recommend leaving them alone for the few weeks that the young are helpless. Monitor the raccoons to determine when they have moved on their own accord, and then secure the entrance to the chimney or attic to prevent re-entry. Trapping and moving the family will almost always lead to separation and probable death of the young.  

Important: If you have a female with babies, give her extra time to relocate her entire family before you close the entrance. Raccoons have several den sites within their territories, so she will need to check for a vacancy, then move the young one by one, taking possibly two or three days. Do not lock the mother out, since she will return to retrieve her young and may damage your house to reach them. There is also the possibility that the young may die, leaving you with a smelly mess.  

Capping your chimney will prevent a raccoon from inhabiting it. Because raccoons are nocturnal, the best time to use repellents or frightening strategies to get them out of a chimney is right before the animal would normally start his nightly routine.

Check your property regularly to make sure that screens barring entrance into your home, basement or crawlspace are intact. Lock dog and cat doors at night and place ammonia stations in front of the locked door.

If a raccoon should establish himself under your house, place a radio near his nesting place and keep it on loud during the day. Locate all entrances and exits. Block them off except for one and use repellents or frightening strategies to encourage the raccoon to leave. To be certain the animal has departed, sprinkle flour at the exit and watch for footprints that lead away from the opening. When the raccoon leaves to begin his nightly hunting (usually two hours after sunset) block the remaining entrance. 

Ponds should be three feet deep. Horizontally submerging wire mesh around the circumference of the pond can provide the fish with protection since the raccoons will most likely stay off the flimsy wire.

SkunksiStock_skunk

Skunks are found in every neighborhood in Rochester. Skunks rarely exhibit a fear of people since they are literally born and raised in our backyards. They are chiefly nocturnal animals. While their diet primarily consists of rodents and insects, it may also include carrion, eggs and garbage. If approached by an intruder and unable to flee, they may stamp their forepaws and scratch the ground in warning. If pursued after this point, the skunk may spray. If you see a skunk displaying this behavior, back away quietly and slowly.  The most effective method of discouraging visits by a skunk is to secure metal trash containers with tight-fitting lids and to hold the lid in place with a thick rubber strap.

Remove attractants (i.e., garbage, dog or cat food left out at night, open compost piles, a pond, fruit trees and vegetable gardens) from the vicinity of your house.

Elevated sheds, openings under concrete slabs and porches, and accesses to crawl spaces under houses are all attractive to skunks and other wildlife because they make ideal denning sites.

Motion-sensitive oscillating sprinklers have been very successful in deterring skunks.

Ropel® and Get-Away® are taste and smell repellents available for use in target areas. You can also place regular household ammonia stations around your yard in the areas frequented by skunks. To do this, take a shallow dish or bowl, place a rag in it and pour ammonia over the rag until it's completely saturated. Place extra ammonia in the dish so the rag will continue to wick it up through the night. Avoid lawn areas, as ammonia will burn the grass.

When a mother skunk and her young are present, we recommend leaving them alone for the few weeks that the young are helpless. Monitor the skunks' activities to determine when they have left for good, and then secure all entrances to the nest site to prevent re-entry. Trapping skunks is rarely necessary and should never be done while they are nesting.

Important: If you have a mother with babies, be sure to give her extra time to relocate her entire family before you seal the entrance to their den. If the parent is gone but you are unsure whether the young are also out, do not seal the opening. The babies will starve and possibly discharge their spray before dying if trapped in the den. Consider using a mild deterrent such as a radio to accelerate the skunks' departure from the den.

Make sure that all air vents and openings to crawl spaces and other potentially accessible areas are secured. Skunks are rodent predators who often follow mice and rats into these areas. Close openings around decks, stairs, sheds and hot tubs.

Keep woodpiles elevated off the ground and pick up any debris that could potentially house a skunk den.

Place a radio near a known skunk den and keep it on loud during the day. Wait until the animal has begun their nightly foray and locate all entrances and exits. Block all except one and use repellents or frightening strategies to scare the skunks out. To be certain the animals have left, sprinkle flour at the exit and watch for footprints that lead away from the opening. When you are sure the animal is gone, securely close the opening.

Because they normally do not climb, fencing is a highly effective means of keeping skunks out of your yard. By attaching an extension of chicken wire along the base of your fence and buried beneath the ground's surface, you will prevent skunks from gaining access by digging under the fence.

Vegetable gardens can attract skunks, although they are mainly interested in the harmful rodents and insects that can ruin your garden. While foraging for grubs, skunks may dig many shallow holes in the lawn; similar to those made by both raccoons and squirrels. A nursery or garden center can advise about how to prevent grubs.

The best way to protect your dog, cat or other companion animal from wildlife is to keep them inside at night. Domestic animals left in the yard where a skunk might live or forage could be sprayed anytime from dusk to dawn. Dogs generally are sprayed because they chase or threaten skunks. If you need to let your dog out during the night, turn on the patio lights first and scan the yard visually before letting releasing him. If your companion animal is sprayed, we recommend commercial deodorizing products available at your local animal supply store. Skunk spray will dissipate over time.   

OpossumsiStock Opossum

Opossums are slow moving, omnivorous animals who roam properties at night looking for food. Carrion forms much of the opossum's diet and is supplemented with fruits and vegetables, insects, frogs, eggs, birds, snakes, mammals and earthworms, as well as dog or cat food or garbage left out at night.  

The opossum is approximately the size of a house cat, with grayish-white fur that can vary from almost white to almost black. Feet and legs are black; toes are white; ears are naked flaps of skin. Tracks will show an opposable thumb on the rear feet. The long, naked, scaly tail is prehensile and is often used as a fifth limb.

Opossums weigh between four and eight pounds, are two to three feet long, and can live from two to six years.  Opossums are found in all types of habitats, but they usually prefer deciduous woodlands. They favor dens on the ground, which can lead them to take up residence under decks and in crawlspaces. While female opossums spend their lives in more defined areas, the male opossum may wander continuously.

Over the years we have changed their habitats into our living spaces and they have had no problem adapting to our lifestyles. Opossums no longer exhibit a fear of people or civilization, since they are born and raised in our neighborhoods. 

The only long-term, permanent means of coping with troublesome opossums is to exclude them from areas where you do not want them.  Opossums are wanderers, and if you see one in your yard, he is probably just passing through.

When confronted, opossums often bare their teeth and hiss. While they may look fierce, they generally are non-aggressive and shy. Rather than fight, when hard-pressed they will sometimes slip into the death-feigning catatonia that we term "playing possum." The animal's system reacts automatically, throwing the brain and nervous system into a catatonic state that lowers their heartbeat and respiration. 

The first and best approach to dealing with wildlife in urban environments is to practice tolerance - understanding and acceptance of the natural patterns of animal life and respect and appreciation for wild animals. As useful as the repellents and scare devices described below may be, they all create inconvenience and displacement or even death for the opossums and perhaps other species as well.  

Since opossums are omnivorous and are one of nature's best scavengers, make sure to not inadvertently provide them with a food source.

In general, they do not have behaviors that cause property damage. Because they are not diggers, they are rarely the culprits if the soil or sod has been turned over.

Hand-sized motion detectors (usually combined with bright lights) and alarms, intended for indoor use, can be used in crawlspaces or, with proper protection from the weather, in some outdoor situations.

Motion-sensitive lighting kits are also effective in situations for nocturnal raids on trashcans or gardens. Motion-sensitive oscillating sprinklers are also available for deterring nighttime visitors.

Repellents: Ropel® contains both a bittering agent and a penetrating agent to allow it to better absorb into plant tissue or other material. It works by imparting an extremely bitter taste to anything it contacts. Get-Away® uses extracts of oil of mustard and capsaicin as both an odor and taste repellent to repel wild animals. You can place regular household ammonia stations around your yard in the areas frequented by opossums. Take a shallow dish or bowl, place a rag in it and pour ammonia over the rag until completely saturated. Place enough ammonia in the dish so the rag will continue to wick the ammonia up through the night. Avoid lawn areas, as ammonia will burn the grass.

Make sure that screens barring entrance to your home, basement or crawlspace are intact.

When an opossum is known to be denning under a porch or patio, place a radio near where the opossum is nesting and keep it on loud during the day. When the animal leaves for her nightly foray (two hours after dark is generally a safe time), locate all entrances and exits, blocking all except one. Loosely close this last opening with netting, straw or another fibrous material than an animal trapped inside can push away, but one on the outside will be less likely to disturb to get back in. To be certain the animal has left, sprinkle flour at the exit and watch for footprints that lead away from the opening. When you are sure the opossum is gone, securely close the opening.

Lock dog and cat doors at night and place ammonia stations in front of the locked door.

Secure trash containers with tight-fitting lids and a thick rubber strap, and to bring in your companion animal's food and water dishes each evening. Replace food and water bowls with ammonia stations during nighttime hours. If you encounter an opossum in your garbage can, simply tip the can on its side and allow the animal to leave on his own.

Securely close the areas around decks, hot tubs and sheds. Opossums are rodent predators and will often follow mice and rats into these areas.  

Living with Tree Squirrels iStock_squirrel
Squirrels often depend on trees for places to bear and raise young, take shelter from the weather, find food and escape from predators. They use tree cavities and leaf nests as dens. When it's available, squirrels will also take liberal advantage of shelter provided by humans in attics and crawlspaces along the upper floor of buildings. Squirrels are only active during the day. When you observe damage, first make sure another animal is not causing it.

Squirrels feed mainly on plant material, which vary with geography and season. Acorns and other nuts are both eaten and stored underground in the fall and early winter, with the underground storage making up a substantial portion of the winter diet. In the spring and summer squirrels eat the flowers and growing buds on the terminal ends of branches and a variety of fruits. 

Prevention is the key to dealing with squirrels. Because tree squirrels are extremely agile, they can access just about every square inch of your property and your home. The most serious squirrel-related problems usually develop when adult females enter a building to establish nests. In their search for a den site, they will explore all potential openings, and often enter chimneys or attics through unscreened vents or openings left by loose or rotting boards. Squirrels enter buildings somewhere high on the structure and will exploit an existing hole, sometimes enlarging it by gnawing. Your first sign of a squirrel's presence is usually the sound of scampering in the attic or above the fireplace. 

It is important to remember that these animals are only doing what is natural for them - seeking a warm, dry place to stay, raising their young and search for food at a time of the year when shortages are critical and death is imminent. The first approach to dealing with squirrels is to establish limits of tolerance, accept them for what they are and be patient. If you must exclude them from an attic or prevent them from stealing bird food, do so in a way that does them and their young no harm.

You can use hand-sized, indoor-use motion detectors (usually combined with bright lights) and alarms to keep squirrels from entering attics and crawlspaces. With proper protection from the weather these are also options in some outdoor situations.

Repellents: Several commercial repellents are registered for use with squirrels. Some, such as products that contain Thiram, can be used to soak bulbs before planting. Others are intended to be sprayed on ornamental plants that squirrels are attacking. Ropel® contains both a bittering agent and a penetrating agent to allow it to better absorb into plant tissue or other material. It works by imparting an extremely bitter taste to anything it contacts. Get-Away® uses extracts of oil of mustard and capsaicin as both an odor and taste repellent to discourage squirrels. 

If a squirrel is trapped in your chimney, hang a ¾-inch or thicker rope down the chimney to provide a means of escape. Be sure to tie one end of the rope to the top of the chimney before lowering the other end, and make certain that it reaches the damper or smoke shelf. The squirrel will climb up the rope and escape, usually within a few (daylight) hours. After you are certain the squirrel has escaped, remove the rope and screen the chimney, preferably with a commercially made chimney cap. Do not try to smoke a squirrel out of a chimney; a trapped squirrel and her babies may be killed and would be difficult to remove. 

If a squirrel is down in the fireplace (presumably behind the fireplace doors or screen), try tapping on the door and scaring them back up above the damper. If successful, close the damper and proceed as above. If the squirrel cannot or will not leave the fireplace, your next best option is to close any interior doors in the room and open an exterior door or window visible from the fireplace. Open the door to the fireplace and sit quietly. The squirrel will instinctively head for the light of the open door or window and go outside.

If you have an adult squirrel in your attic, attempt to frighten them outside by banging on the rafter inside the attic, or wait until you are sure all squirrels have left, as they usually do during the day. Then seal up the opening with ¼- to ½-inch mesh hardware cloth or sheet metal flashing, securely fastened. Extend the metal patch at least six inches beyond the hole in all directions to prevent the squirrel from gnawing around the patch. Seal any other weak spots or potential entrances in the same way. Watch closely to see if the squirrel persists in attempting to regain entry. Mothers will go to extreme lengths to reunite with their young and can cause extensive damage to houses when doing so. Usually when a mother squirrel feels threatened she will relocate her brood. Be sure to allow her extra time to move her babies before sealing openings permanently. 

Protect fruit trees that are isolated from other trees by wrapping a two-foot band of sheet metal around the trunk about six feet off the ground. Branches growing below six feet may have to be trimmed. Covering planters with chicken wire allows plants to grow through, but blocks access to soil where squirrels can dig. Enclosing entire gardens with mesh wire may exclude other animals as well. 


SEE ALSO

Pets and Animals

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